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Other Terms: Transverse scapular artery, Arteria suprascapularis, Artère suprascapulaire
The suprascapular artery runs across the lower part of the neck. It is slightly lower and more anterior than the superficial cervical. At first, it passes beneath the sternomastoid muscle and over the phrenic nerve and the lower part of the anterior scalene muscle. It then runs posterior to the clavicle and the subclavius muscle, crosses the third part of the subclavian artery, and passes beneath the posterior belly of the omohyoid and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle to the superior border of the scapula. Here, it passes over the transverse ligament of the scapula to reach the supraspinous fossa. In the supraspinous fossa, the artery lies close to the bone, and supplies the supraspinatus muscle. At the neck of the scapula, it turns around the base of the spine to the infraspinous fossa. Here, it anastomoses with the circumflex scapular and with the posterior scapular. The chief branches of the suprascapular artery are the inferior sternomastoid, acromial, and articular. Other branches supply the subclavius muscle, the skin over the manubrium, and the clavicle. The inferior sternomastoid artery supplies the clavicular portion of the sternomastoid muscle, behind which it is given off. The acromial brancb pierces the trapezius muscle, passes over the acromion process, and anastomoses with the acromiothoracic and posterior circumflex arteries. The articular branches supply the acromioclavicular joint and the shoulder joint.