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Hypoglossal nerve [XII]

Other Terms: Twelfth cranial nerve, Hypoglossal nerve tree, Hypoglossal nerve [XII], Nervus hypoglossus, Nervi hypoglossalis, Nerve XII, Nervus hypoglossus [XII]

Description

The twelfth cranial or hypoglossal nerve arises superficially from the side of the medulla oblongata by several filaments. They emerge through the groove between the anterior pyramid and the olivary body. Its deep origin is from the posterior portion of the floor of the fourth ventricle.. The filaments of this nerve are collected into two bundles. The bundles perforate the dura mater separately before passing through the anterior condyloid foramen. At this point, they unite to form the trunk of the nerve. The hypoglossal is a motor nerve. It supplies the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue. Through fibers derived from the vagus and sympathetic nerves it supplies a meningeal branch to the dura mater. Through fibers derived from the second and third cervical nerves, it supplies motor branches to the geniohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, omohyoid, and thyrohyoid.

Type

Motor

Function

Moves tongue (styloglossus, hyoglossus, genioglossus, and intrinsics-palatoglossus is by X)

Travels through

Hypoglossal canal

Region Innervated

Tongue

Latin

Nervus hypoglossus

Latin

Nervi hypoglossalis

Latin

Nerve XII

Latin

Nervus hypoglossus [XII]

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