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Plantar foot muscles
The plantar muscles of the foot are much more substantial than the thin dorsal muscles of the foot. These muscles sit beneath the thick subcutaneous fat pad on the bottom of the foot. This tough fibrous fat pad functions as an important shock absorber in cushioning the foot when it strikes the ground. Beneath this subcutaneous fat is a tough fibrous sheet, the plantar aponeurosis, which extends from the calcaneus to the deep plantar fascia of the digits. Beneath this aponeurosis the plantar muscles form four layers. The lateral and medial plantar nerves, which are the terminal branches of the tibial nerve, innervate these muscles.