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Other Terms: Subscapularis muscle, Musculus subscapularis, Muscle subscapulaire
Latin muscle parts
Shoulder joint muscle – rotator cuff
In English, this muscle’s name literally translates as the muscle under the spade or trowel. The Latin prefix sub- meaning “under” is added to the Latin scapula, which is derived from the Latin term scapter meaning “a digger.” The scapula’s resemblance to a spade used for digging is probably responsible for its name.
Surface of the subscapular fossa and the tendinous intermuscular septa of the subscapular fossa.
Lesser tubercle of the humerus and the articular capsule of the shoulder joint.
Medial rotation of the humerus – the subscapularis is the primary medial rotator of the humerus.Horizontal flexor (flexes the abducted humerus) – it works with the pectoralis major in flexing the abducted humerus.Abduction of the humerus – the muscle’s superior fibers assist the deltoid and supraspinatus with this movement.Stabilizes the shoulder joint - being part of the rotator cuff this muscle plays a prominent role in stabilization of the glenohumeral joint. It is active during most movements of the joint because it is acting to stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity. It acts with the infraspinatus to hold the humeral head down during initial abduction of humerus.
Upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5 and C6)
Small muscular branches from the suprascapular artery, axillary artery, and subscapular artery; the dorsal scapular artery has numerous branches to the muscle.